Proudhon criticized for a new perspective
Social, Bakunin propositions
The second organization anarchist Peter Kropotkin
This paper aims to demonstrate the anarchist ideal nickname without the impossible utopia has always been considered by the history books poorly designed and popularized by politicians and intellectuals, bourgeois, fascist and Marxist, hoping to question this ideal impose their ideologies. The concept of anarchism is already working on several academic research, which recovers its features and principles, which is a work of historical rescue, not only to refer to the facts, but rescue ideas are the result of human development and social improvement.
I intend to demonstrate these ideas through the authors see more influence on the formation of the anarchist ideal and solutions to the problems of political philosophy.
Present anarchist ideals through the literature of the most libertarians theoretical expression, and through this work show that the contemporary ideal and added to the solution of human problems and the format of a better society designed .
Keywords: anarchism, freedom of social organization,
This work demonstrates the concern of anarchist thinkers and intellectuals who have developed an important job to think of a social ideal that really communicates with the reality of the social partners and can offer better living conditions of people in a movement towards equality and social justice. An ideal that proposes a dialogue with the reality of life and has made its facilities, and that will always serve society in the rightness of their needs and desires.
The political question is not a new problem to be analyzed by the philosophy, this concern has a similar history to the history of human civilization, but the concepts are viewed through the prism of the philosophy of the questions of various thinkers and intellectuals during The history.
Looking for that through the work of theorists anarchists like Bakunin, Proudhon and Kropotikin, expose the political ideas of philosophical anarchism and its main features and proposals. They agree in the dialogue between the concepts of these authors in order to facilitate understanding of how anarchism was perpetrated by anarchist theoretical ideal and the ideal assumptions that were made.
To begin this work presents the ideas of Proudhon and his critique of political economy and social relations that contradict the principles of equality, where the philosopher is to write their proposals against the political system of his time and write their proposals.
What is Property? So with this question Proudhon begins his thesis, the issue raised by the philosopher is a bit disconcerting in its formation, but the answer he gives is unusual for many people. The property is theft Proudhon says, but a steal and even more surprising is the comparison that the owner is a criminal because the analogy made by the thinker, where slavery is compared to a property of a murder and robbery, both considered (murder, theft) crimes under state law.
Proudhon makes a distinction between ownership and possession, possession is a right common to all the property is that it is an irregularity, society as a whole and an agreement between the same owner who leases his property and charge the tenant a percentage of production shows the imbalance and the irregularity is not clear. How can those who do not work for the benefit of the production of another, regardless of the support of church and state and have the right to claim a share of that profit, while holding a heavy burden on the employee status of taxes, tithes and other terms and confiscation.
"The work of civilization, which gives his work a piece of bread, which builds a house to sleep in a barn, which makes the richest fabrics to use rags, which produces everything you give up everything that is not free. There associated with the change of their salary and service, the employer for whom work is their enemy "(Proudhon What Is Property?, 1975, p.116)
The social organization should be free so as to guarantee equality of the means of production and other benefits that a group of persons may provide should be divided as fairly as possible and the difference between people who should not exist, the support for his genius of liberty for men to redefine their habits and moral conduct, no discrepancies offered by private property and economic privileges it provides.
The owner not only appropriates the work product that actually generates value as required and specified time to rectify their usury.
The custom and the laws are not guided by justice, but in consideration of the defense of property, which the company uses for its logic and its principles, and unfair practices. By insisting on justice thinker is based on equal irrevocable, not just the playing field for action at the same time the same.Reason and logic that defines complex Proudhon ultimately the fact that the right to profit is in other words, the law of theft, confiscation and misappropriation of effort and work of others.
The property uses the result of work of usury and not necessity, and the employee exhausts their progress impossible, what defines a society based on ownership as impossible when it comes to justice and equality. "Property is impossible, equality is not there. The first is the hate and would destroy it: the second absorbs all our thoughts and did not realize "(Proudhon, ditto, 1975, p.195).
In order to establish equal rights and duties of liberty must be the starting point of social convergence, freedom must be the foundation of society is not the property. Distinction between Proudhon's property and can demonstrate their understanding of land use, land must be of those who produce, as well as factories and production facilities to make use of them, and exalt the company and its results . The present owner is a strange and somewhat surreal abstraction of the production process.
The essence of social organization is freedom, and the only way to ensure equality of social justice and make equitable relations between social institutions and allow fair trade between urban and agricultural workers.
The possession must be individual, says Proudhon, which makes it illegal action that the property itself all changes in the economic relations of society, making it a fairer distribution of land and housing, giving all equally the right to occupy different depending on the number of occupants in an attempt to prevent the property, work becomes a duty of employment and the result of the work force becomes the collective property.
In conclusion, the play ends with the ownership and exploitation of man by man. Business transactions must be made to the extent of change of product by product, avoiding a disproportionate income trading, any changes must be freely and equally among the parties, taking into account these conditions, the disparity between rich and poor left to exist and problems like food shortages will be a thing of the past. The man just does not produce or even to satisfy all your needs, but exceeds the economic needs of the group.
Through free association and mutual cooperation with the maintenance of equal rights and duties to preserve individual freedom is, in fact, the only way to promote a just and egalitarian society.
According to Proudhon,
" IX. - Freedom of association, freedom is limited to maintain equality in the means of production and equity in trade is the only possible form of society, the only just, the only true
X, - Politics is the science of freedom: the rule of man by man, whatever the name is assigned, the oppression, the highest perfection of society is the union of order and anarchy. "( Proudhon, ibid, 1975, p. 247)
There is no possibility of justice in a society where the economic base is the property and the inequality produced by this type of economy that generates poverty and wealth in direct proportion, the government of the few over the other is maintained by its action state's violent and institutions. The social organization should be guided by a policy of freedom and equality that will lead to social justice, the pursuit of a perfect society is based on supporting the merger between order and anarchy.
To help in understanding the physiology of the proposed organization by anarchist theorists analyze the proposals of Bakunin.
The ideas of Bakunin opposed the establishment of a centralized power and fragmentation of the revolutionary organizations, so the idea at once contradictory, innovative, his proposal includes a dialectic of the organization, which would be the embryo of federalism libertarian collectivism Bakunin does not propose an organizational model, but notes that the revolutionary organization must be made by social alliances in a wide and open as well as in regional and international macro.
"It is the privilege and of every privileged position to kill the spirit and heart of men. (..) This is a social law which admits of no exception, and applies to both classes and all nations, businesses and individuals. And the law of equality, the supreme condition of freedom and humanity. "(God and the State, Bakunin, p. 25)
The company can develop fully only through collective effort and the maintenance of equality and freedom.
For freedom, in fact, was established in society is necessary that the means of production and different sectors of society are incubated by the members directly, through workers' associations in the field or whether urban or different industry sectors is necessary to the economy and maintaining appropriate services to meet the needs of society.
Society must be organized so that all individuals should have guaranteed funds for maintenance and development, both for work and for their individual needs for the full development of their intellectual and physical faculties. The concern with the formation of management groups so that there is once again exploiting the labor of others and the economic privileges of the groups who enjoy the social wealth without participating directly in the production of that wealth.
Let the earth are those who cultivate the land and the factories of those working in factories, this is the configuration of the economic plan proposed by Bakunin, a process of self-management in factories and rural associations.
What differentiates the main point of Bakunin's collectivism is the availability of goods and wealth produced by workers in the field or whether they are urban, all members of society, demanding the attention of the social needs of individuals from childhood regardless of sex or age, all individuals should have their needs are guaranteed from birth. However, it provides each member of society able to develop and implement productive work, to help (depending on capacity), the maintenance needs of the community. The all collectivist maxim is that all-encompassing and the duty of all, the exploitation of labor of others is unacceptable in view of collectivism.
The need for a radical change in the economic and social situation, so it is a true emancipation of the workers are subjected to slavery by the capitalist system. The relationship between employer and employee master and slave must be extinguished permanently, in all its forms and settings that emerged during the history of civilizations. Political power is causing effect of these inequalities, maintenance and defense of the ruling classes and provide the privileges of the groups that are established in power, must be away from society. Only then can society truly moving towards socialism.
According to the understanding of Bakunin, so people can actually be emancipated and free final state, it is necessary to acquire knowledge through education.
Equality "(..) media development, ie, food, education and education in all forms of science believe that this will result in economic and social equality only in principle, had become too intellectual, so removing all inequalities (..)" Bakunin fictitious aput, Valverde, p.65)
Bakunin Education is not just a simple understanding of democracy and knowledge acquired by mankind throughout history, education is the person providing full full full understanding of how it should be within the body politic, and be able manage their own lives and make their decisions according to their preferences. Education should be complete in regard to the intellectual and individual values and culture.
Do not make uninformed decisions, and not be shared without education options. Knowledge is a releasing agent Bakunin, which gives the holder the exercise of their freedom conditions in full.
Within this perspective there is a proposal that through education, there may be a change in the consciousness of the workers, giving people tools to carry out a socio-cultural revolution.
"(...) We repudiate the false legacy of virtue, honor and rights, as well as fortune. The heir of any form is no longer the son of his works, and to the point of departure is a privilege .
The abolition of inheritance rights is fundamental to the abolition of social classes, whenever there is a group that owns and transmits to her children, the division between a propertied class and the class will remain the disinherited.
The elimination of the division between mental and manual Another economic transformation is the elimination of the division between mental and manual labor. The intellectual work, which is appropriated by the capitalist privileged "(...) includes the sciences, the arts, the conception, design, invention, the calculation, the government and the general direction of the forces or subordinate workers . "(Bakunin, 1999, p. 99. Aput, collectivist anarchism, 2005.)" <http://pt.scribd.com/doc/22741378/O-Bakuninismo-Anarquismo-Coletivista>
To the extent that people can understand their role in society and its true state within a system based on the exploitation of labor and the unfair distribution of consumer goods and wealth produced by society, anarchists like Bakunin believed the change in values cause a real and profound social revolution.
The belief in change driven by the awareness of people and the positive desire of people to do the best for themselves and their peers is a hallmark of libertarian collectivism of Bakunin, in rejecting any form of guidance or intellectual leadership that will rather than revolution.
The principle of indoctrination is not explicit in the proposals of Bakunin, but the other is his belief in human nature and conspiring to evolve a better and fairer society, the belief that Bakunin expressed in his writings largely draws performance by the fronts of the revolution and the environment of great change and scientific discovery, pierce the veil of Maya society in which he had lived for centuries.
It is this dialectic that Bakunin supported the proposal of federalism collectivist, with great optimism and faith in the goodness of people and change through education.
"The Alliance declares itself atheist, who wants the abolition of classes and the political, economic and social full and equal individuals of both sexes, which wants the land, tools and any other capital, becoming collective property of society, can only be used by workers, ie, agricultural and industrial associations. Acknowledges that all government policies that are currently restricted to administrative functions increasingly easy for the public services in their countries, will disappear in the universal union of free associations, both agricultural and industrial. "
(Bakunin, Guillaume James)
What is the main factor of Bakunin suggests that there may be a social revolution is a change in the state of affairs not only in economic or social policy, but a change in social values and social relations in economic terms, a radical change in society a deep revolution in society.
Through the philosophy and the various currents of thought and research methods, we intend to explore and investigate different ways of knowing and how to understand and present the things according to our knowledge in the pursuit of accurate knowledge, tested and approved most closely approximates the true philosophical knowledge.
The way how this knowledge is disseminated and promoted in society is that it has a simple search versa inference of knowledge and much closer to the interests of groups that support the economic and political privileges and access privileges and prerogatives of science communication and information.
Far from the knowledge produced by a company so far with the kind of philosophy and interests well to keep the political power of professional groups to serve the economic power elite, which has the scientific and philosophical research, largely the suitability of these economic and political oligarchies.
The political philosophical paradigms, during the history of civilizations, follow this pattern of submission ruling oligarchies with few exceptions, which are rejected when they are produced or commonly labeled subversive insurgency or uprising.
Anarchism is one of those exceptions, which is not a political philosophical thought to the power and the maintenance or the prerogatives of the oligarchy, but has committed to a radical change in society in order to improve human relations and seek a better understanding between individuals who intend to live in society.
And this issue worth mentioning is the work of a Russian named Pyotr Kropotikin thinker, who will serve in their proposals to demonstrate the difficulties of a format of their philosophical and political changes in society effectively as motivation class interests as an obstacle in the configuration of political philosophy that focuses on finding the best way to live in society in a fair and equitable solidarity is not a convenience but a culture.
Considerations Kropotkin begins by referring to the change that has the human society in the process of civilization of their experiences in the caves of the modern age, which aims mainly to its conduct in relation to the accumulation of property and inheritance.
If any part in the advancement of civilization is the history of humanity as a whole and the common efforts of all the benefits and the rules and provided there is only a small part of society? It makes no sense that no one can deny the achievements of all, given certain powers and almost anything that is served.
Immoral invention of private property that allows social groups to appropriate the wealth produced by others to you. What Proudhon called theft is occurring in modern society, with the approval and ratification by the laws of the State where the worker is not the product of their work is delivered to the chief, who somehow took the place of the feudal lord and is dedicated to providing maintenance and guarantee the rights of the employing class and the holders of economic power is capitalism. .
"It happened all that enables man to produce and add to its productive forces was embezzled by some. The ground, which derives its value accurately the needs of a growing population, which now belongs to a minority that can prevent and avoid people to work it or prevent it are grown according to modern needs. (Kropotkin, 1956, p. 6.) "
The means of production workers retired and everything began to have an owner, and can not survive without being subjected to exploitation and sale of its own work force peasant and urban worker is subject to produce for the enrichment of the elites holder of the economic logic does not apply to capitalist practice, as it only causes to advance the accumulation of wealth and income of the owners and not for the economic needs of society. What commitments, much of the "health" of the economic system.
What happens is that because the system is marked on the product of usury and profit of a few, can not occur with any real capacity, the existence of the army of unemployed workers productive and greatly overloads the great number of intermediaries that do not produce more than the benefits of trade in goods labor of others, the production process is fraught with the treatment given to improve the product of the "law of demand" if a product has no value more to the machinations of the capitalist system, the bottleneck in production causes a shortage of the product that is valued in the market. The system based on the steady increase in profits is not an economic system is quite cannibalistic self-consumption.
The proposal being for all, made by anarchism, it is possible that all these thousands of parasites are no longer just a social nuisance and begin to contribute their work and the owners no longer own the wealth produced by the trabajadores.Promover equal status and welfare for all is possible.
What is Kropotkin says: "The welfare for all, not a dream. It is possible, achievable, after which our ancestors made fruitful by our workforce. (Kropotkin, 1956, p. 7)"
What is expected of the revolution is not a representative of change, but having the means of production and consumer goods for the people and for the people. They take all the wealth gives people know what is welfare, and how to live in abundance is known as the hard work and a shortage of what you want and need.
As anarchists imagine the possibility of an egalitarian society and economically viable in the form of welfare for all? This is certainly an important question to be clarified, and Kropotkin and other anarchist theorists present us several proposals, including anarcho-communism that is precisely the proposal of Kropotkin. Like : Any company that breaks the private property will be seen in the case of the organization in libertarian communism. (Kropotkin, idem, p. 11) "
In a society where all means of production, showing a total change in the format of the work and activities and working relationships, the distribution of products of this work also has to undergo a radical change, not with a form mild state of communism (Marxism), but that's all I have all the material world.The end of the property brings this change in proportion, without the owners have each other only for the possession of what you need for your welfare and not work or pay for the bonuses they receive, but have wealth and labor is also common wealth should be.
Anarchism does not endorse the concept that appears backward in the idea of "state management," sovereign in the maintenance of social welfare and economic security of the society, the ideological myth is not reflected in reality, most of the productive activities society are dissociated state management, state interference in economic activities to the greater possibility of failure and failure. Briefly state action interferes with the production process and not only the seizure as a provider and administrator. The processes required to secure a new economic organization which to do justice to this science, to understand human needs and promote the means to address them, are hard and difficult, does not change the social structure so that radical changes and reforms of simple , is like using a new cloth to repair clothing routes, eventually everything breaks again rise after the old system and take ownership of the means of production is necessary to integrate the work and actions that make a real connection between field workers and city workers can be through free trade associations of food for the urban life of the manufactured products of interest to farmers, all that is heavy and does not capture regulated is that you have little restriction .
This means the economic changes suggest about the economy does not mean normalizing economic relations, but the associations did not know how they can contribute to the maintenance of society and how it can make better use of community wealth, without making the necessary laws and penalties for task performance and good use of the wealth produced by the community. Practices should die with the bourgeois capitalist system, a new society requires effort and will of all, the certainty of establishing the best for everyone.
"(..) Communism is not the phalanstery or authoritarian German theorists, but the anarchist communism, communism without government, of free men. This is the synthesis of the two objectives pursued by mankind through the ages :. Economic freedom and political freedom "(Kropotkin, ibid, p. 2)"
In order to promote a caring society where freedom and respect for people is a common practice, to elucidate the positive actions everyday problems will be reinforced by the desire to improve society and move toward greater.
No empty symbolism and ideologies of the true purposes, but more on relationships and respect for rights, equality is nothing but a dead letter in inadequate legislation, but to consolidate all day in the relations practice labor and solidarity in an anarchist society.
Anarchism is a political philosophy based on not accepting any kind of power and hierarchy, as a mode of social organization. With the actions and methods of organization guided by the free and independent organization and voluntary initiative.
What can we conclude with the proposals of thinkers and theorists have seen so far through this is what our work will be displayed below.
For the format of an anarchic society is needed and complete a radical change in the status quo, ie a social revolution. How can you establish an anarchist society is a question that has different views, whose proposals have given rise to many philosophical currents of political thought.
Anarchism proposes solutions to the problems of injustice, inequality and authoritarianism and baptized into the idea of freedom and equal rights for all.By rejecting any form of power and domination that provides the possibility of a higher form of human organization, without universal suffrage, without the dictatorship or fascism. Denying the alleged need for leaders or leaders who are leading people and represent their concerns to drive the lives of all.
Anarchism advocates that all are able to go their own way, which respects the right of all and understood as a duty of solidarity and respect necessary for the maintenance of the common good, when the rights of each are always chosen so autonomously, without subordination to any authority established or institutionalized norm suppress the will of the person and his inalienable right to be free.
The principle of indoctrination is not one of the concepts that differ from the ideologies of anarchism in general, not an anarchist doctrine proposes, but suggestions of how they are organized on the basis of certain principles of individual liberty, universal equality and justice social. Anarchism is an ideology, because it does not establish the doctrine that undermines the social reality in a world view based on dogmatic views of its creators.
As unorthodox thinking is no limit to understanding the world and the way it presents, anarchism is not limited to an absolute interpretation of reality, to put his ideas into an ideology, not reality is fixed but it is understood, the reality is that heterodox proposals of how to organize society can only develop in heterodox. Respecting the principles of equality, freedom and social justice.
Each individual social should be able to understand its social function, responsible for building your own reason and values, the individual's participation not only in the production of consumer goods, but also in building the intellectual society, habits , culture, ethics and moral values. Everyone should have the intellectual tools that provide value judgments about reality participating auto sea and freedom to be whole.
If we are really the result of our decisions can only be truly free if it is to implement the decisions we make, individually and without the deduction of the charges made by the social conventions that are made before the person was born.
Freedom of choice increases the very condition of being as a social individual, understanding that equality is consolidated in the comparison of different and not the similarity, but the difference of each individual and mutual solidarity and help to promote the construction of an egalitarian society. Because it is in the performance of our differences that we become a true equality.
Any form of government is seen by anarchists as authoritarian and illegitimate, as it only serves to perpetuate the domination and exploitation of man by man, and maintains the prerogatives of the ruling elite at the expense of the rest of the population. Organizational policy also called libertarian socialism, anarchism, where the existence of a government manager is not allowed even a transition system, which has been defended by authoritarian socialist lines saying that only after an interim administration of a state workers could reach the conditions for socialist change in effect. Suddenly, this ideology is not consistent with the ideals of libertarian socialism, because freedom can not be exercised through the use of coercion, violence, a legal status established, you can only exercise their freedom in the actual practice of freedom not socialize by decree, but a part of all socialize.
Social organization is the free way and without the application of rules and standards, consumer goods and are socialized property, on the understanding that all work that everyone is entitled to enjoy consumer goods produced in society. Without this act to the need for regulatory authorities or any kind of leadership or government organizations at all levels of society must be made freely, and which consists of discarded must, without unnecessary alleged obligations and restrictions the good life and the maintenance of social welfare. The sole purpose of ensuring full freedom of choice socais agents, both in the way they joined.
Libertarian socialism is its functionality completely linked to the absence of central authority or any of its manifestations, bureaucratic or absolute, arguing for a form of organization based on free enterprise and self management. What did the actual exercise of individual liberty and equal justice for all social beings.
Social divisions are negative for the formation of a just and egalitarian society, which creates conflicts unfit for society and the inconsistencies of the community and provides a joint action, which makes available any social division. Everyone should be understood as moral equivalents are, of course, without this being considered for their spatial or genetic characteristics important.
The formation of each individual that can be influenced according to the cultural universe in which is inserted, which makes the geographic factor, but the company with whom he lives, every civilization is a society that chooses as the constitution required its history.
The inherently global nature of the anarchist ideas of political philosophy is totally different and not based on capitalist or imperialist interests, with a global vision without the imposition of political boundaries, commercial or any kind of ideology, ruling out any voltage disputes over territory or commercial benefit, anarchism proposes comprehensive globalization, where everything is shared by all, not just some, or privileges of certain countries that have commercial and industrial structures and monopoly privileges and maintain the advantage in international trade relations.
Dissemination of knowledge and access to information for all is something advocated by anarchists as essential for the training of people can form their own concepts and making judgments about the actions and things within the social environment, becoming self-sufficient in managing their lives. For this proposal is accepted by the anarchist idea of libertarian education and holistic education.
Breaking the chain anarchism domination disrupted the architecture of power and division of classes, the class of the rich and the priests, spiritual leaders and politicians have no place in an anarchist society.
Codes of conduct has always insisted on punishments are discarded by the anarchist ideal, since their functionality is not reflected in the experimental reality, but has always been used to favor the ruling class and to encourage mediation of disputes or establish facto equality.
The libertarian federalism goes beyond the condition of the business meeting or city council of the Connector configuration of a network of solidarity which helps in communication and mutual support of various groups that make up the federación.Hay therefore a representative of the groups and their interests, but participating in the personal needs of every member of society, which distinguishes him as unique in the political power of the Union ordered to meet the social needs of the individual.
The environment of the organization is defined by the natural dynamics of everyday life, as the participation of all, naturally, brings this action and potency of these changes. The meanings of the former organization are considered incentives that complement each other through the dialectical libertarian federation.
Individual responsibility is inherent in all actions managed by the individual and not assigned to any concept of abstract moral behavior, but a concrete and objective self-awareness and values that govern the actions of each individual.
In terms of the collective rights appears general interest perspective, compared to individual desire. That's not true interest will converge to the individual to the extent that this is an active player in the community and is reflected in social action, cooperative, association or social group that arises from the execution of any collective action . Where the individual is struggling to overcome the difficulties facing the community, which also benefited on a personal level.
As in the individual actions of the emerging groups are the sole responsibility of these groups, primarily the result is your responsibility to project settings and the consequences are entirely your responsibility.
The functionality of social groups should be done in an organized way and with maximum effort so that everyone can contribute his share of work without being overloaded, the contribution must be so far from each according to his ability.
Concern for the formation of a social policy view that has the ability to dialogue with the collective moral and social needs in its various aspects, economic, organizational and political debate is an extremely difficult task, due to the circumstances of civilization and its implications.
What anarchism proposes a large extent, is a collective action to change the values revered for centuries, revolutionizing thinking and social behavior in which individuals are aware of the need for this change and then we want the change. Thinking that is based on social justice, equal rights and collective responsibility, and as a new paradigm of equal liberty and solidarity.
The search for anarchism is really a revolution, a profound change in all social ethical, political, economic y. For harmonization, freedom, equality, peace and solidarity.
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